In 1900 Charles Rennie Mackintosh and The Glasgow Four were invited to exhibit their avant-garde designs at the Vienna Succession. Vienna welcomed the Glasgow style. The sensuous lines of French Art Nouveau were renounced in favour of clean geometric forms. The black and white checkerboard pattern exemplifies this new design ethos.
European Modernism appears to evolve from this meeting of the Scottish School and the Viennese Succession, leading to the Bauhaus and the International style.